H&S Department Video Tutorial

Phase rule
Gibbs' phase rule was proposed by Josiah Willard Gibbs in his landmark paper titled On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances, published from 1875 to 1878. The rule applies to non-reactive multi-component heterogeneous systems in thermodynamic equilibrium and is given by the equality
F=C-P+2
where F is the number of degrees of freedom, C is the number of components and P is the number of phases in thermodynamic equilibrium with each other.
The number of degrees of freedom is the number of independent intensive variables, i.e. the largest number of thermodynamic parameters such as temperature or pressure that can be varied simultaneously and arbitrarily without affecting one another. An example of one-component system is a system involving one pure chemical, while two-component systems, such as mixtures of water and ethanol, have two chemically independent components, and so on. Typical phases are solids, liquids and gases.


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Corrosion
Electrochemical corrosion of metals occurs when electrons from atoms at the surface of the metal are transferred to a suitable electron acceptor or depolarizer . Water must be present to serve as a medium for the transport of ions. The most common depolarizers are oxygen, acids, and the cations of less active metals.


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Random Variable
A random variable x takes on a defined set of values with different probabilities.
For example, if you roll a die, the outcome is random (not fixed) and there are 6 possible outcomes, each of which occur with probability one-sixth. For example, if you poll people about their voting preferences, the percentage of the sample that responds “Yes on Proposition 100” is a also a random variable (the percentage will be slightly differently every time you poll).


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Logic
Theoretical computer science includes areas of discrete mathematics relevant to computing. It draws heavily on graph theory and mathematical logic. Included within theoretical computer science is the study of algorithms for computing mathematical results.


A proposition is a collection of declarative statements that has either a truth value "true” or a truth value "false". A propositional consists of propositional variables and connectives. ... The connectives connect the propositional variables.


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Logic
Theoretical computer science includes areas of discrete mathematics relevant to computing. It draws heavily on graph theory and mathematical logic. Included within theoretical computer science is the study of algorithms for computing mathematical results.


A proposition is a collection of declarative statements that has either a truth value "true” or a truth value "false". A propositional consists of propositional variables and connectives. ... The connectives connect the propositional variables.


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Logic
Theoretical computer science includes areas of discrete mathematics relevant to computing. It draws heavily on graph theory and mathematical logic. Included within theoretical computer science is the study of algorithms for computing mathematical results.


A proposition is a collection of declarative statements that has either a truth value "true” or a truth value "false". A propositional consists of propositional variables and connectives. ... The connectives connect the propositional variables.


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CSE Department Video Tutorial

Booth Algorthim
Booth's multiplication algorithm is a multiplication algorithm that multiplies two signed binary numbers in two's complement notation. The algorithm was invented by Andrew Donald Booth in 1950 while doing research on crystallography at Birkbeck College in Bloomsbury, London. Booth used desk calculators that were faster at shifting than adding and created the algorithm to increase their speed. Booth's algorithm is of interest in the study of computer architecture.

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Expert System
Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence exhibited by machines. In computer science, the field of AI research defines itself as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal.Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is applied when a machine mimics "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving".

In artificial intelligence, an expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert. Expert systems are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge, represented mainly as if–then rules rather than through conventional procedural code.


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Paging Concept
In computer operating systems, paging is a memory management scheme by which a computer stores and retrieves data from secondary storage for use in main memory. In this scheme, the operating system retrieves data from secondary storage in same-size blocks called pages.

Paging is an important part of virtual memory implementations in modern operating systems, using secondary storage to let programs exceed the size of available physical memory.For simplicity, main memory is called "RAM" (an acronym of "random-access memory") and secondary storage is called "disk" (a shorthand for "hard disk drive"), but the concepts do not depend on whether these terms apply literally to a specific computer system.


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Multi Core Architecture
Multicore refers to an architecture in which a single physical processor incorporates the core logic of more than one processor. A single integrated circuit is used to package or hold these processors. These single integrated circuits are known as a die.

A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent actual processing units (called "cores"), which are units that read and execute program instructions.[1] The instructions are ordinary CPU instructions (such as add, move data, and branch), but the single processor can run multiple instructions on separate cores at the same time, increasing overall speed for programs amenable to parallel computing.[2] Manufacturers typically integrate the cores onto a single integrated circuit die (known as a chip multiprocessor or CMP), or onto multiple dies in a single chip package.


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OSI model
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing systemwithout regard to their underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original version of the model defined seven layers.

A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that comprise the contents of that path. Two instances at the same layer are visualized as connected by a horizontal connection in that layer.


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Static members in C++
We can define class members static using static keyword. When we declare a member of a class as static it means no matter how many objects of the class are created, there is only one copy of the static member.

A static member is shared by all objects of the class. All static data is initialized to zero when the first object is created, if no other initialization is present. We can't put it in the class definition but it can be initialized outside the class as done in the following example by redeclaring the static variable, using the scope resolution operator :: to identify which class it belongs to.


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Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA)
A Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA)—also known as deterministic finite accepter (DFA) and deterministic finite state machine—is a finite state machine that accepts/rejects finite strings of symbols and only produces a unique computation (or run) of the automaton for each input string.

They are four type of method to construct DFA :

  • String Ending with type.
  • String Stratirg with type.
  • Sub string type.
  • Divisibility type.

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REST - Representational State Transfer
REST stands for Representational State Transfer. (It is sometimes spelled "REST".) It relies on a stateless, client-server, cacheable communications protocol and in virtually all cases, the HTTP protocol is used.

REST is an architecture style for designing networked applications. The idea is that, rather than using complex mechanisms such as CORBA, RPC or SOAP to connect between machines, simple HTTP is used to make calls between machines. In many ways, the World Wide Web itself, based on HTTP, can be viewed as a REST-based architecture. RESTful applications use HTTP requests to post data (create and/or update), read data (e.g., make queries), and delete data. Thus, REST uses HTTP for all four CRUD (Create/Read/Update/Delete) operations.


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super keyword in java
The super keyword in java is a reference variable that is used to refer immediate parent class object.

Whenever you create the instance of subclass, an instance of parent class is created implicitly i.e. referred by super reference variable. Usage of java super Keyword :

  • super is used to refer immediate parent class instance variable.
  • super() is used to invoke immediate parent class constructor.
  • super is used to invoke immediate parent class method.

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Passing data from one php to another php program using php post.PHP’s $_POST variable is used to collect names and data from a form using the method POST. This variable is an array of variable names and their values that are sent by HTTP POST method. It basic purpose is to collect data from a form. When the $_ POST variable is used, all variables used are NOT displayed in the URL . Also, they have no restrictions to the length of the variables.



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Clock synchronization deals with understanding the temporal ordering of events produced by concurrent processes. It is useful for synchronizing senders and receivers of messages, controlling joint activity, and the serializing concurrent access to shared objects. The goal is that multiple unrelated processes running on different machines should be in agreement with and be able to make consistent decisions about the ordering of events in a system.For these kinds of events, we introduce the concept of a logical clock, one where the clock need not have any bearing on the time of day but rather be able to create event sequence numbers that can be used for comparing sets of events, such as a messages, within a distributed system

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HTML is a markup language for describing web documents (web pages).HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language,A markup language is a set of markup tags,HTML documents are described by HTML tags,Each HTML tag describes different document content .Styling HTML with CSS,CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets.CSS describes how HTML elements are to be displayed on screen, paper, or in other media.CSS saves a lot of work. It can control the layout of multiple web pages all at once. CSS can be added to HTML elements in 3 ways:Inline - by using the style attribute in HTML elements,Internal - by using a style tag element in the section, External - by using an external CSS file

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ECE Department Video Tutorial

Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining thousands of transistors into a single chip. VLSI began in the 1970s when complex semiconductor and communication technologies were being developed. The microprocessor is a VLSI device.



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Digital communication

In communications and electronic engineering, a transmission line is a specialized cable or other structure designed to conduct alternating current of radio frequency, that is, currents with a frequency high enough that their wave nature must be taken into account. Transmission lines are used for purposes such as connecting radio transmitters and receivers with their antennas, distributing cable television signals, trunklines routing calls between telephone switching centres, computer network connections and high speed computer data buses.



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Digital communication

Data transmission, digital transmission or digital communications is the transfer of data (a digital bit stream or a digitized analog signal[1]) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel. Examples of such channels are copper wires, optical fibers, wireless communication channels, storage media and computer buses. The data are represented as an electromagnetic signal, such as an electrical voltage, radiowave, microwave, or infrared signal.



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Transistors make our electronics world go ‘round. They’re critical as a control source in just about every modern circuit. Sometimes you see them, but more-often-than-not they’re hidden deep within the die of an integrated circuit. In this tutorial we’ll introduce you to the basics of the most common transistor around: the bi-polar junction transistor (BJT).



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An adder is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. In many computers and other kinds of processors adders are used in the arithmetic logic units. They are also utilized in other parts of the processor, where they are used to calculate addresses, table indices, increment and decrement operators, and similar operations.
Binary Adders are the combinatorial circuits which are used to add two binary numbers. The nature of the adders chosen depends on the characteristics of the binary numbers which need to be added. Say for example, if one needs to add two single bit binary digits, then one can use half adder while if there is an additional carry which needs to be added along with them, then one may resort to the use of full adder. However what if we want to add a binary number which has multiple bits in it. In such a case, the need arises to use a parallel adder. Finally, if we want to subtract two binary numbers which has multiple bits in it, we can again use a parallel adder using 2’s complement method.



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Electromagnetic interference (EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, i s a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.The disturbance may degrade the performance of the circuit or even stop it from functioning. In the case of a data path, these effects can range from an increase in error rate to a total loss of the data. Both man-made and natural sources generate changing electrical currents and voltages that can cause EMI: automobile ignition systems, mobile phones, thunderstorms, the Sun, and the Northern Lights. EMI frequently affects AM radios. It can also affect mobile phones, FM radios, and televisions.



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A PIN diode is a diode with a wide, undoped intrinsic semiconductor region between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor region. The p-type and n-type regions are typically heavily doped because they are used for ohmic contacts. The wide intrinsic region is in contrast to an ordinary p–n diode.
The wide intrinsic region makes the PIN diode an inferior rectifier (one typical function of a diode), but it makes it suitable for attenuators, fast switches, photodetectors, and high voltage power electronics applications.



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New applications such as video conferencing and voice over IP present many challenges to the design of mobile networks. The mobile networks are constantly changing. The latest devices like smart phones, personal digital assistants, and mobile enabled laptops such as Windows Mobile and Windows Phone are truly able to deliver on any mobile broadband. Thus, the Internet service providers must deliver a high quality of service to the customers. The key factor in quality of service is optimization for bandwidth allocation. Various queuing algorithms can be used in case of mobile IPv6 to control bandwidth allocation for instance. It has various queuing disciplines in mobile IPv6 network when traffic class field in IPv6 is set to reserved, that is, the packets need quality of service throughout, from source to destination.



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Cellular concept

To describe cellular systems in general, it is necessary to include discussion of the basic cellular systems, their performance criteria, the uniqueness of the mobile radio environment, the operation of the cellular systems, reduction of cochannel interference, handoffs, and so forth.



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This tutorial is designed for students and all enthusiastic learners, who are willing to learn signals and systems in simple and easy steps. This tutorial will give you deep understanding on Signals and Systems concepts. After completing this tutorial, you will be at intermediate level of expertise from where you can take yourself to higher level of expertise.



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EEE Department Video Tutorial

The video deals with the various types of instruction sets of 8085 based on its function. The viewers of this video can gain knowledge on the execution process of these instructions, the register and memory addresses involved in each instructions and they can also get an idea of writing the Assembly language programs using these instructions.


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Electrical machine is a device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy or vice versa. In the present video, the viewer will get the detailed information about the basic construction of an electrical machine.


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The construction and operation of underground and overhead cables is discussed in this lecture. The controlling and grading methods are also discussed.


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The procedure for load flow analysis is carried out in this lecture. The procedure for gauss seidal method flowchart and algorithm are discussed in this lecture.


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The role of power system and its components is fully discussed in this lecture. The essential needs and responsibilities are dealed in this lecture.


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Gauss's law states that the net flux of an electric field through a closed surface is proportional to the enclosed electric charge. One of the four equations of Maxwell's laws of electromagnetism, it was first formulated by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1835 and relates the electric fields at points on a closed surface (known as a "Gaussian surface") and the net charge enclosed by that surface. The electric flux is defined as the electric field passing through a given area multiplied by the area of the surface in a plane perpendicular to the field. Another statement of Gauss's law is that the net flux of an electric field through a surface divided by the enclosed charge is equal to a constant.


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A current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field experiences a force. If the direction of the field and that of current are mutually perpendicular to each other, then the force acting on the conductor will be perpendicular to both and that can be determined using the Fleming’s left-hand rule. When current establishes in the conductor, it gets displaced which verifies the existence of a force on the conductor.


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The block diagram is to represent a control system in diagram form. In other words practical representation of a control system is its block diagram. It is not always convenient to derive the entire transfer function of a complex control system in a single function. It is easier and better to derive transfer function of control element connected to the system, separately. The transfer function of each element is then represented by a block and they are then connected together with the path of signal flow. For simplifying a complex control system, block diagrams are used. Each element of the control system is represented with a block and the block is the symbolic representation of transfer function of that element. A complete control system can be represented with a required number of interconnected such blocks.


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In engineering, a transfer function (also known as system function or network function and, when plotted as a graph, transfer curve) is a mathematical representation for fit or to describe inputs and outputs of black box models
Typically it is a representation in terms of spatial or temporal frequency, of the relation between the input and output of a linear time-invariant (LTI) system with zero initial conditions and zero-point equilibrium. For optical imaging devices, for example, the optical transfer function is the Fourier transform of the point spread function (hence a function of spatial frequency) i.e., the intensity distribution caused by a point object in the field of view. A number of sources however use "transfer function" to mean some input-output characteristic in direct physical measures (e.g., output voltage as a function of the input voltage of a two-port network) rather than its transform to the s-plane.


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A simple circuit for measuring an unknown resistance by connecting it so as to form a quadrilateral with three known resistances and applying a voltage between a pair of opposite corners. A numerical example is analyzed using star delta conversion for this network


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Norton’s Theorem can be thought of as the opposite to “Thevenins Theorem”, in that Thevenin reduces his circuit down to a single resistance in series with a single voltage. The Numerical example is carried out for this theorem.


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Timer Counter

A timer is a specialized type of clock which is used to measure time intervals. A timer that counts from zero upwards for measuring time elapsed is often called a stopwatch. It is a device that counts down from a specified time interval and used to generate a time delay, for example, an hourglass is a timer.
A counter is a device that stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process occurred, with respect to a clock signal. It is used to count the events happening outside the microcontroller. In electronics, counters can be implemented quite easily using register-type circuits such as a flip-flop.


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  • To model the power system under steady state operating condition.
  • To apply numerical methods to solve the power flow problem.
  • To model and analyze the system under faulted conditions.
  • To model and analyze the transient behaviour of power system when it is subjected to a fault.

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Load flow analysis is a computational tool for this purpose. Load flow is normally used in planning studies when a power network is being laid or when a power network is undergoing expansion.


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Importance of stability analysis in power system planning and operation - classification of power system stability - angle and voltage stability – Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) system: Development of swing equation - equal area criterion - determination of critical clearing angle and time – solution of swing equation by modified Euler method and Runge-Kutta fourth order method.


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MECH Department Video Tutorial

'Engineering mechanics is the application of mechanics to solve problems involving common engineering elements. The goal of this Engineering Mechanics course is to expose students to problems in mechanics as applied to practically real-world scenarios. This video explains about the basic concept of engineering mechanics, scalar and vector quantities. Also explained the various laws which are used in engineering mechanics.

  • Presented by - S.SANTHOSH KUMAR M.E / Assistant Professor

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Introduction of Thermal Engineering

Mechatronics is a multidisciplinary field of science that includes a combination of mechanical engineering, electronics, computer engineering, telecommunications engineering, systems engineering and control engineering. This video explains about the control system in mechatronics. A control system is a system of devices or set of devices, that manages, commands, directs or regulates the behavior of other device(s) or system(s) to achieve desire results. In other words the definition of control system can be rewritten as A control system is a system, which controls other system.

  • Presented by - SHARUN.V M.E / Assistant Professor

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Introduction of Thermal Engineering

Thermal Engineering is a controlling of heating or cooling processes in an enclosed environment or an open environment using various equipment such as boiler, condenser, turbine, nozzles, compressors and air conditioners etc., It involves the science of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer.

This video explains about the introduction of basic principles of four stroke SI engines and detailed explanation about Otto cycle. This lecture gives the clear explanation that how the efficiency of Otto cycle is derived by the basic thermodynamics relations.

  • Presented by - V.VINODKUMAR M.E / Assistant Professor

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Cam & Follower

A cam is a mechanical device used to transmit motion to a follower by direct contact. The Cam converts one type motion into another.

The driver is called as cam and the driven member is called as follower. In a cam follower pair, the cam normally rotates while the follower may translate or oscillate. A familiar example is the camshaft of an automobile engine, where the cams drive the push rods (the followers) to open and close the valves in synchronization with the motion of the pistons. This video lecture will describe about cam, follower and their various types.

  • Mr. S.Malligarjunan
  • Associate Professor / Mech

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Fundamentals of Entrepreneurship

AEntrepreneurship Development is a practice meant to improve entrepreneurial skills among people. In other words, it is the inculcation, advancement, and grooming of entrepreneurial skills into a person needed to establish and successfully run an enterprise.

Entrepreneurship Development provides people the required encouragement and business skill to help them establish a successful business. It is all about building a business from zero by coming up with new ideas and turning those ideas into a profitable business.

This is a brief introductory lecture that will definitely help the readers to have a better understanding of the concepts of entrepreneurship.

  • Mr. Amos Gamaleal David / Assistant Professor/ Mech

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Gear Trains

A gear train is a mechanical system formed by mounting gears on a frame so that the teeth of the gears engage. It is a collection of two or more meshing gears. Gear teeth are designed to ensure the pitch circles of engaging gears roll on each other without slipping, providing a smooth transmission of rotation from one gear to the next The various types of gear trains are Simple Gear Train, Compound Gear Train, Reverted Gear Train and Epicyclic Gear Train. This video lecture will explain the Tabulation method to solve a Simple Gear Train and a Compound Gear Train.

  • Mr. Amos Gamaleal David / Assistant Professor/ Mech

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CNC Machine

CNC Machine plays an important role in manufacturing industries today. The reason is that it produces the parts with more accuracy with less human effort as it is fully automatic. By means of this machine even a tiny sized part can be manufactured with more accuracy. This machine works based on the NC Part programs which are fed to the machine. This video lecture gives a basic idea for creating the part programs for a CNC machine.

  • Presented by
  • C.VELMURUGAN M.E.,
  • Assistant Professor/Mech.

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Thermodynamics - Psychrometry

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work. Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially physical chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering.

Psychrometry: The psychrometry is a branch of engineering science, which deals with the study of moist air (i.e.) dry air mixed with water vapour or humidity. It also includes the study of behavior of dry air and water vapour mixture under various sets of conditions.

  • Presented by
  • T.G.Sakthivel
  • Associate Professor

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Introduction of FEA

Finite element analysis (FEA) is a computerized method for predicting how a product reacts to real-world forces, vibration, heat, fluid flow, and other physical effects. Finite element analysis shows whether a product will break, wear out, or work the way it was designed. This video explains about the introduction of finite Element Analysis, it lectures about basic step by step procedure how solutions are calculated by Approximation methods. It provides clear view from unit II for one dimensional bar elements how shape functions are derived.

  • Presented by
  • R.VIGITHRA., ME., MBA
  • Assistant Professor- Grade (1)

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Shaft

Shafts are the elements that support rotating parts like gears & pulleys and in turn they are themselves supported by bearings resting in the rigid machine housings Shafts perform the function of transmitting power from one rotating member to another supported by it or connected to it Thus, they are subjected to torque due to power transmission and bending moment due to reactions on the members that are supported by them

Stresses in Shafts

  • Shear stresses
  • Bending stresses

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IT Department Video Tutorial

Apriori is a seminal algorithm proposed by R. Agrawal and R. Srikant in 1994 for mining frequent itemsets for Boolean association rules. The name of the algorithm is based on the fact that the algorithm uses prior knowledge of frequent itemset properties. Apriori property: All nonempty subsets of a frequent itemset must also be frequent.


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Generalizations of Bézier curves to higher dimensions are called Bézier surfaces, of which the Bézier triangle is a special case. In vector graphics, Bézier curves are used to model smooth curves that can be scaled indefinitely.


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A virtual function is a member function that you expect to be redefined in derived classes. When you refer to a derived class object using a pointer or a reference to the base class, you can call a virtual function for that object and execute the derived class's version of the function.


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Server-side scripting is a technique used in web development which involves employing scripts on a web server which produce a response customized for each user's (client's) request to the website. The alternative is for the web server itself to deliver a static web page.


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Booth's multiplication algorithm is a multiplication algorithm that multiplies two signed binary numbers in two's complement notation. The algorithm was invented by Andrew Donald Booth in 1950 while doing research on crystallography at Birkbeck College in Bloomsbury, London. Booth used desk calculators that were faster at shifting than adding and created the algorithm to increase their speed. Booth's algorithm is of interest in the study of computer architecture.


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Multi-threaded programming contains more parts that can run concurrently and each part can handle a different task at the same time making optimal use of the available resources. It extends the idea of multitasking into applications where you can subdivide specific operations within a single application into individual threads. Each of the threads can run in parallel. The Operating System divides processing time not only among different applications, but also among each thread within an application. It enables you to write in a way where multiple activities can proceed concurrently in the same program.


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Virtualization is the ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources. It is the process by which one computer hosts the appearance of many computers. Virtualization is used to improve IT throughput and costs by using physical resources as a pool from which virtual resources can be allocated.


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Booth Algorthim
Booth's multiplication algorithm is a multiplication algorithm that multiplies two signed binary numbers in two's complement notation. The algorithm was invented by Andrew Donald Booth in 1950 while doing research on crystallography at Birkbeck College in Bloomsbury, London. Booth used desk calculators that were faster at shifting than adding and created the algorithm to increase their speed. Booth's algorithm is of interest in the study of computer architecture.

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Expert System
Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence exhibited by machines. In computer science, the field of AI research defines itself as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal.Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is applied when a machine mimics "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving".

In artificial intelligence, an expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert. Expert systems are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge, represented mainly as if–then rules rather than through conventional procedural code.


Read More

Paging Concept
In computer operating systems, paging is a memory management scheme by which a computer stores and retrieves data from secondary storage for use in main memory. In this scheme, the operating system retrieves data from secondary storage in same-size blocks called pages.

Paging is an important part of virtual memory implementations in modern operating systems, using secondary storage to let programs exceed the size of available physical memory.For simplicity, main memory is called "RAM" (an acronym of "random-access memory") and secondary storage is called "disk" (a shorthand for "hard disk drive"), but the concepts do not depend on whether these terms apply literally to a specific computer system.


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Multi Core Architecture
Multicore refers to an architecture in which a single physical processor incorporates the core logic of more than one processor. A single integrated circuit is used to package or hold these processors. These single integrated circuits are known as a die.

A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent actual processing units (called "cores"), which are units that read and execute program instructions.[1] The instructions are ordinary CPU instructions (such as add, move data, and branch), but the single processor can run multiple instructions on separate cores at the same time, increasing overall speed for programs amenable to parallel computing.[2] Manufacturers typically integrate the cores onto a single integrated circuit die (known as a chip multiprocessor or CMP), or onto multiple dies in a single chip package.


Read More

OSI model
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing systemwithout regard to their underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original version of the model defined seven layers.

A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that comprise the contents of that path. Two instances at the same layer are visualized as connected by a horizontal connection in that layer.


Read More

Static members in C++
We can define class members static using static keyword. When we declare a member of a class as static it means no matter how many objects of the class are created, there is only one copy of the static member.

A static member is shared by all objects of the class. All static data is initialized to zero when the first object is created, if no other initialization is present. We can't put it in the class definition but it can be initialized outside the class as done in the following example by redeclaring the static variable, using the scope resolution operator :: to identify which class it belongs to.


Read More

Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA)
A Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA)—also known as deterministic finite accepter (DFA) and deterministic finite state machine—is a finite state machine that accepts/rejects finite strings of symbols and only produces a unique computation (or run) of the automaton for each input string.

They are four type of method to construct DFA :

  • String Ending with type.
  • String Stratirg with type.
  • Sub string type.
  • Divisibility type.

Read More

REST - Representational State Transfer
REST stands for Representational State Transfer. (It is sometimes spelled "REST".) It relies on a stateless, client-server, cacheable communications protocol and in virtually all cases, the HTTP protocol is used.

REST is an architecture style for designing networked applications. The idea is that, rather than using complex mechanisms such as CORBA, RPC or SOAP to connect between machines, simple HTTP is used to make calls between machines. In many ways, the World Wide Web itself, based on HTTP, can be viewed as a REST-based architecture. RESTful applications use HTTP requests to post data (create and/or update), read data (e.g., make queries), and delete data. Thus, REST uses HTTP for all four CRUD (Create/Read/Update/Delete) operations.


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super keyword in java
The super keyword in java is a reference variable that is used to refer immediate parent class object.

Whenever you create the instance of subclass, an instance of parent class is created implicitly i.e. referred by super reference variable. Usage of java super Keyword :

  • super is used to refer immediate parent class instance variable.
  • super() is used to invoke immediate parent class constructor.
  • super is used to invoke immediate parent class method.

  • Read More

Passing data from one php to another php program using php post.PHP’s $_POST variable is used to collect names and data from a form using the method POST. This variable is an array of variable names and their values that are sent by HTTP POST method. It basic purpose is to collect data from a form. When the $_ POST variable is used, all variables used are NOT displayed in the URL . Also, they have no restrictions to the length of the variables.



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Clock synchronization deals with understanding the temporal ordering of events produced by concurrent processes. It is useful for synchronizing senders and receivers of messages, controlling joint activity, and the serializing concurrent access to shared objects. The goal is that multiple unrelated processes running on different machines should be in agreement with and be able to make consistent decisions about the ordering of events in a system.For these kinds of events, we introduce the concept of a logical clock, one where the clock need not have any bearing on the time of day but rather be able to create event sequence numbers that can be used for comparing sets of events, such as a messages, within a distributed system

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HTML is a markup language for describing web documents (web pages).HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language,A markup language is a set of markup tags,HTML documents are described by HTML tags,Each HTML tag describes different document content .Styling HTML with CSS,CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets.CSS describes how HTML elements are to be displayed on screen, paper, or in other media.CSS saves a lot of work. It can control the layout of multiple web pages all at once. CSS can be added to HTML elements in 3 ways:Inline - by using the style attribute in HTML elements,Internal - by using a style tag element in the section, External - by using an external CSS file

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ECE Department Video Tutorial

Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining thousands of transistors into a single chip. VLSI began in the 1970s when complex semiconductor and communication technologies were being developed. The microprocessor is a VLSI device.



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